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How To Brew


How To Brew – Author: John J Palmer – Everything you need to know to brew great beer everytime!

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How to Brew is the definitive guide to making quality beers at home. Whether you want simple, sure-fire instructions for making your first beer, or you’re a seasoned homebrewer working with all-grain batches, this book has something for you.

John Palmer adeptly covers the full range of brewing possibilities accurately, clearly and simply. From ingredients and methods to recipes and equipment for brewing beer at home, How to Brew is loaded with valuable information on brewing techniques and recipe formulation.

A perennial best seller since the release of the third edition in 2006, How to Brew, is a must-have to update every new and seasoned brewer’s library.

About the Author

John Palmer is one of the most recognized names in homebrewing today. The author of three books and countless articles, he enjoys applying practical engineering know-how to the art and science of brewing beer. Through his bestselling Brewers Publications title, How to Brew: Everything You Need to Know to Brew Great Beer Every Time, John has helped hundreds of thousands of readers learn to successfully brew their own beer at home.

Palmer co-authored two other books on brewing: Brewing Classic Styles: 80 Winning Recipes Anyone Can Brew with homebrewing legend and Heretic Brewing Company founder Jamil Zainasheff and Water: A Comprehensive Guide for Brewers, the definitive guide to water chemistry for brewing with Colin Kaminski, former brewmaster at Napa’s Downtown Joe’s Brewery and Restaurant. Palmer is involved in many scientific and professional brewing associations. He left a career in aerospace research and development, and metallurgy in 2011 to found Palmer Brewing Solutions, Inc.

He now focuses on brewery consulting and product development with key brewing industry manufacturers and serves as publications director for the Master Brewers Association of the Americas. When he’s not brewing beer, writing about beer, or developing brewing equipment, John enjoys woodturning, blacksmithing, and reading sci-fi/fantasy. He lives in California with his wife, three children, and his cat, Shadow.

Table of Contents


Table of Contents

List of Tips, Tables, & Significant Figures

Introduction Section IBrewing Beer Kits

Chapter 1 – A Crash Course in Brewing What Do I Do? Brew Day Equipment Needed Preparation Making Wort Fermentation Week(s) Bottling Day Serving Day But Wait! There’s More!

Chapter Two – Sanitation The Road to Good Brewing Preparation Sanitation Cleaning Products Cleaning Your Equipment Sanitizing Products Heat Cleaning and Sanitizing Final Thoughts Record Keeping Example Recipe Form

Chapter 3 – A Short Discourse on Malting and Brewing A Brief Discussion of Barley and Malt The Production of Malt Extract Cooking the Wort Full Boil vs. Partial Boil Building a Beer

Chapter 4 – Malt Extract and Beer Kits Choosing a Good Kit Shopping for Extracts How Much Extract to Use Gravity vs. Fermentability Steeping Specialty Grains

Chapter 5- Hops What Are They? Why Are Hops Bitter? How Are They Used? First Wort Hopping Bittering Flavoring Finishing (Whirlpool Hops) Dry Hopping Hop Forms – Pellets, Plug and Whole Hop Variety Types Bittering Hop Varieties Dual Purpose Hop Varieties Aroma Hop Varieties How to Measure Hops Hop Bitterness (IBU) Calculations Gravity of the Boil Utilization Hop IBU Nomograph

Chapter 6 – Yeast and Fermentation How Yeast Work Defining Fermentation …

99 Lagtime or Adaptation Phase …

100 High growth or Attenuative Phase 101 Conditioning Phase…

102 Cold Conditioning / Lagering…

103 Building a Better Fermentation …

104 Oxygen and Aeration …

105 Nitrogen …

106 Necessary Minerals…

107 Nutritional Supplements …

108 Open vs. Closed Fermentation …

109 Chapter 7 -Managing Your Yeast Yeast Types Yeast Forms Yeast Strains Dry Yeast Strains Liquid Yeast Strains Yeast Nutritional Needs Nutritional Supplements Oxygen Aeration is Good, Oxidation is Bad Preparing Yeast and Yeast Starters Preparing Dry Yeast Preparing Liquid Yeast When Is My Yeast Starter Ready to Pitch? Using Yeast From Commercial Beers Support Your Local Micro Simple Yeast Ranching

Chapter 8 – Water For Extract Brewing Two Things What is Good Brewing Water? How to Read a Water Quality Report Adding Brewing Salts

Chapter 9 – Brewing Your Second Batch First Recipe Beginning the Boil The Hot Break Hop Additions Kettle Fining Cooling the Wort Water Bath Ice Copper Wort Chillers Choosing Your Fermentor Buckets vs. Carboys Airlocks vs. Blowoffs Transferring the Wort Conducting Your Fermentation Pitching the Yeast Fermentation Location Fermentation Racking Estimating the Alcohol Content

Chapter 10 – Priming, Bottling, and Kegging When to Bottle Bottle Cleaning Fining What Sugar Should I Prime With? Commercial Priming Agents Bottle Filling Storage Kegging

Chapter 11 – Brewing Lager Beer Yeast Differences Additional Time Lower Temperatures Autolysis Lager Yeast Fermentation When to Begin Lagering Aagh!! It Froze!! Should I Add More Yeast? Maintaining Lager Temperature Priming and Bottling of Lager Beer Bottling Brewing American Lager Beer RecipeTypical American Lager

Chapter 12 – Brewing Strong Beers

Chapter 13 – Brewing Fruit Beers

Chapter 14 – Brewing Sour Beers Section IIAll-Grain Brewing

Chapter 15 – Understanding Malted Barley & Adjuncts What is Malting? Maillard Reactions and Flavor Development Malt Types and Usages Base Malts Kilned Malts Caramel Malts Roasted Malts Other Grains and Adjuncts How To Read a Malt Analysis Sheet

Chapter 16 – How the Mash Works An Allegory Defining the Mash The Acid Rest Doughing-In and Beta Glucanase The Protein Rest and Modification Starch Conversion/Saccharification Rest Other Factors for Starch Conversion

Chapter 17 – Residual Alkalinity, Malt Acidity and Mash pH The six concepts Source Water The Usual Suspects Residual Alkalinity is the Cornerstone of Mash pH Water Chemistry + Malt Chemistry = Mash Chemistry Mash pH Sets up the Beer pH

Chapter 18 – Adjusting Water for Style Famous Waters and their Beers The dogma of Virgin Water Adjusting water for Style Sulfate to Chloride Ratio Total Dissolved Solids Adjustment Examples

Chapter 19 – The Methods of Mashing Single Temperature Infusion Multi-Rest Mashing Infusion Calculations Multiple Rest Infusion Example Decoction Mashing Summary

Chapter 20 – What to Expect When You are Extracting Extraction and Maximum Yield Efficiency and Typical Yield Calculating Your Efficiency Water to Grist Ratio and First Runnings Planning Recipe Malt Quantities

Chapter 21 – Getting the Wort Out (Lautering) A Good Crush Means Good Lautering Lautering What is Mashout? What is Recirculation? What is Sparging? Rinsing Versus Draining Water to Grist Ratio and First Runnings Sparging Calculations

Chapter 22 – Your First All-Grain Batch Additional Equipment Suggested Recipe Partial Mash Option Brew In A Bag Option Starting the Mash Conducting the Mash Conducting the Lauter Variations on a Common Theme Section IIIRecipes, Experiment’g, and Troubleshoot’g

Chapter 23 – Some of My Favorite Styles and Recipes Style Descriptions The Ale Styles Wheat Pale Ales English Special Bitter India Pale Ale American Pale Ale American Amber Ale Brown Ales Oud Bruin Porter Stout Barleywine The Lager Styles Pilsner Classic American Pilsner California Common (Steam-type) Bock Vienna Oktoberfest Chapter Summary

Chapter 24 – Developing Your Own Recipes Developing Your Own Recipes Discretion Is the Better Part of Flavor Smash Increasing the Body Changing Flavors Brewing Sugars Toasting Your Own Malt

Chapter 25 – Is My Beer Ruined? Common Problems Common Off-Flavors Section IVAppendices

Appendix A Using Hydrometers Appendix B Beer Color Basis of Color Rating Other Color Factors Estimating Beer Color

Appendix C Beer Clarity What is Haze? Fixing Haze in the Recipe Fixing Haze With Clarifiers

Appendix D Building Wort Chillers Immersion Chillers Counterflow Chillers Plate Chillers

Appendix E Lauter Tun Design For Batch Sparging Choosing A Cooler Rinsing vs. DrainingA Re-Cap False Bottom, Manifold, Or Screen? Siphon Or Bulkhead? Building Copper Pipe Manifolds Building A Stainless Steel Braided Ring Home Mashing Setups

Appendix F Lauter Tun Design for Continuous Sparging Fluid Mechanics Designing Pipe Manifolds Designing Ring Manifolds How To Continuous Sparge Continuous Sparging Procedure

Appendix G Brewing Metallurgy General Information and Cleaning Aluminum Copper Brass Carbon Steel Stainless Steel Galvanic Corrosion Soldering, Brazing, and Welding Toxicity of Metals Aluminum Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Zinc

Appendix H Metric Conversions References


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How To Brew Book - John J Palmer
How To Brew
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